L'école internationale de boulangerie offers a series of tutorials
to share a set of technical data and recipes.
Indeed, we believe that it is in sharing that our profession evolves and that our practices are progressing.
The mechanical kneading of bread dough made from wheat is divided into 3 main steps:
We offer you a simple technique of manual kneading consisting of three steps:
To preserve the gluten structure, we avoid gestures like compression and tearing the dough.
Finally, note that the 'Bassinage' is a difficult operation to perform during manual kneading.
When at rest, the gluten network starts to relax.
There are many baker gestures for "tightening" gluten.
The most visual is "le rabat" or "le tour".
This technique is used at different times during the process of bread making and whenever we feel the need to give back elasticity to dough. For example :
We see that although conducted on different pieces of dough and at different times, these gestures are similar.
A dough is mainly composed of starch and gluten.
Washing starch in a trickle of water, one sees the gluten network.
This network is a three-dimensional framework, flexible, extensible and waterproof.
In the native state, gluten is difficult to digest for a significant portion of people.
Yet, we will see that natural sourdough fermentation will make it more digestible.
Take some time to understand how to form gluten and how it evolves over the bread making.
Gluten is composed of proteins related to each other by disulphide bonds. These bridges are formed by oxidation of thiol groups during the kneading and fermentation processes.
In the natural fermentation of a sourdough, the gluten network will commence to deconstruct by protease which are enzymes naturally present in the dough. Gluten is predigested and during the sourdough fermentation makes it much more easily assimilated. This is one of the interests of natural fermented sourdough.
Note that proteases are active in an acid medium (pH around 4), a fermented yeast dough does not allow the pre-digestion of gluten.
The purpose of this process is to give the bread its final form.
This step also helps to tighten the gluten network for the last time, if necessary.
The purpose of the 'topping' is to provide different finishes to the surface of the bread. Toppings influence the aesthetics and the final taste of the bread.
The Grigne is often called "signature" of the baker. This refers to the appearance of the baked bread.
We often see the 'Grigne' also strongly influence the final structure of the crumb.
The Grigne allows the release of gasses during the baking process and this output is localized or distributed from the surface of the dough, facilitated or not, the crumb structure is found to be different.
PH is the hydrogen potential.
It is measured using a pH meter.
The pH is related to the acidity of the dough. The higher acidity levels of the dough the lower pH you have.
In other words, the pH measurement gives us very important information on the bacterial activity of the sourdough.
We remember that yeast does not produce acid during alcoholic fermentation.
Yeast: Sugar-alcohol + CO2
Bacterium: Sugar-acetic acid and / or lactic + fermentation residue (CO2 +/-)
The activity of yeast is detected by an increase in volume of CO2.
While the activity of bacteria are detected by the acidification of the medium and lower pH levels.
Most doughs need to be divided and weighed to offer customers an end product of consistent weight.
Scaling/Weighing is a simple operation which still requires some explanation.
The 'boullage' has two main goals:
Many flatbreads have common technical base. Examples include the Indian Naan, the Armenian lavash and the Sardinian Carasau.
The main differences lie within the choice of flour and fermentations.
Lavash is the example traditionally kneaded with yoghurt (lactic ferments). Whereas the Indian Naan and Lavash are fermented with a yeast base.
The Sardinian Carasau bread is made of flour and semolina while the Naan and Lavash are made from a light wheat flour.
All these flatbreads share their final thickness and rapid method of cooking in a hot oven.
The Naan and Lavash are baked in a Tandoori oven, while Carasau Bread is baked directly in a Roman style oven.
Brioche is a tradition that historically varies in areas of France according to local agricultural production and social classes.
The points that differentiate the types of brioche is by adding different types and quantities of fat, sugar and eggs.
By region and social origin, raw materials were very different back in the day.
In Provence, for example, which was for a long period a very poor region, the traditional brioche known as "Le pompe à l'huile" does not contain eggs and the fat used is Lamatière Olive Oil.
In this tutorial, we offer a recipe for a 'Brioche Vendéenne' where the fat is a mixture of butter and cream in a dough with few eggs and partially hydrated with milk.
The resulting structure is light. Braiding also gives a long, fibrous crumb.
Gluten is a giant protein that forms during the kneading and the fermentation of a dough. Gliadin and glutenin are naturally present in the wheat, rye, barley and spelt grains. This is a resilient macromolecule, which is expandable and airtight.
A significant part of the population tries to avoid gluten consumption, continuously or episodically. The main reasons is usually medical or well-being.
This demand encourages us to push new boundaries in breadmaking and take an interest in other grains such as rice, corn, sorghum, chickpeas, lentils, buckwheat, cassava, or nutsedge.
These new grains gives us the opportunity to develop our techniques as bakers and discover a whole new range of products.
In this tutorial, we propose the creation of a very simple bread using rice and buckwheat flour.
Our flour is milled at the Moulin du Chambelland which produces only organic flours and gives a gluten free guarantee. All of the rice crushed by the mill Chambelland comes from Camargue or the Pö Valley.
Pizza Romana embodies the revival of quality pizza in France and Italy.
It allows you to reconnect with the origins of pizza, which is simply a flat bread accommodated with fresh and seasonal ingredients.
We will proceed in this tutorial to create a Romana style pizza. Giving instructions of creating the dough with fermentation and baking tips. Afterwards, we will discuss the finishing with the use of different toppings.
This production can be used with a large number of different flours (white or whole). The dough can be made from a low-gluten flour and worked in a slow fermentation.
Many individuals wish to create their own bread at home.
Except not everybody has time to become a professional baker!
Here we offer a simple way to make sourdough bread at home with very little equipment.
Pour réaliser ce pain, vous aurez besoin du matériel suivant :
This traditional dessert of the Provence region in France, was first introduced as one of the traditional 13 desserts of Christmas. A long time ago, the region of Provence was very poor and the people could not afford expensive ingredients such as eggs and butter. A thing of abundance of which they had was olive oil. Thus creating this traditional dessert!
It is a types of brioche that is made with olive oil. For those seeking a delicious dessert, but are vegan, here is the perfect recipe!
In this tutorial, we will show you how to make this traditional dessert of Provence.
The Gressin is a dry and long breadstick, which comes from the Turin region of Italy.
Since its appearance in the fourteenth century, its elongated shape would become the product we know today as the breadstick.
The breadstick is normally sold dry but it is also sold in Turin in a form called "morbid" that still contains some moisture.
Its diameter varies from 3-4mm, up to 1cm.
The extremely thin breadsticks are called gressinis.
The country bread is one of the great classics of traditional French sourdough breads.
It is composed of 90% of half-wholemeal flour (Type 80) and 10% rye flour. We have chosen to work in this tutorial with a whole rye flour (type 170).
It is usually the bread consumed by traditional French sourdough bread lovers .
After a slow kneading process, we will propose in this tutorial 3 types of procedures possible to obtain different shapes and forms of the bread.
We will include:
Braiding is one of the most classic brioche shaping techniques.
On the aesthetic aspect, braiding provides a long and fibrous crumb, which is highly appreciated.
We will show in this tutorial a sequence of braids from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 strands.
The Kanel Boller is an iconic pastry from Scandinavian countries, particularly in Sweden and Norway. It consists of a brioche dough low in fat or a milk bread dough and a cinnamon butter.
Even though the composition of Kanel Boller is fairly simple, the braiding of this pastry give a spectacular final appearance.
The sechskornbrot or 6 grain bread in German, is a traditional bread from southern Germany.
This sourdough bread is madewith approximately the same amount quantities of whole wheat flour and rye flour.
It is distinguished by its powerful aromas and its exceptional preservation.
Its breadmaking process requires a number of technical issues that we will discover together.
The production of this pure rye bread is an exercise in style.
The north face of a mountain climber or the improbable balance of a soloist.
Traditionally practiced in throughout Germany, Austria, Switzerland, but also in Auvergne or in the French Alps, we find variations of this product. Countries where the conditions of wheat crops were difficult to cultivate because of altitude or climate conditions and where the rye was the main grain of local people.
In the French tradition, the rye bread has a thick and colorful crust and a creamy and honeycombed crumb. The aromas are powerful and with the exceptional shelf life. The 'Tourte' is relatively flat to maintain a meaningful crumb-crust balance.
(In Bavaria, the product is traditionally drier, rounder and less moist. The color is less pronounced and the crust remains fine.)
-Technically, we will be very attentive to the viscosity of the dough.
This viscosity changes with the degradation of pentosans by acid medium pentosanases.
PH control is important for the consistency of the dough.
As the temperature also affects the speed of action of enzymes and enzyme reaction times.